Summary

A steady state economy is an economy of stable or mildly fluctuating size. The term typically refers to a national economy, but it can also be applied to a local, regional, or global economy. An economy can reach a steady state after a period of growth or after a period of downsizing or degrowth. To be sustainable, a steady state economy may not exceed ecological limits.

A steady state economy entails stabilized population and per capita consumption. Birth rates equal death rates, and production rates equal depreciation rates. Minimizing waste allows for a steady state economy at higher levels of production and consumption.

All else equal, the steady state economy is indicated by stabilized (or mildly fluctuating) gross domestic product (GDP). GDP is not a good indicator of well-being, but is a solid indicator of economic activity and environmental impact.

The steady state economy is the way to go! Click here to see the CASSE position statement.

The Short Version

The CASSE position sets the record straight on the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. Climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution are just three powerful examples. And how will the next generation find jobs when the planet can’t support our overgrown economy? The CASSE position calls for a desirable solution – a steady state economy with stabilized population and consumption – beginning in the wealthiest nations and not with extremist tactics. Join the likes of E. O. Wilson, Jane Goodall, and David Suzuki; fill in the information below to sign the position and support a healthy, sustainable economy.

The Full Version

The full version is 16 sentences and available in 29 languages.

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Steady State Economy Definition: Technical Issues, Linguistic Details, and Policy Implications

CASSE president Brian Czech provided a detailed definition of steady state economy for the Encyclopedia of Earth as follows:

The phrase “steady state economy” originated from ecological economics, most notably the work of Herman Daly, but its roots are in classical economics, most notably the “stationary state” as touted by John Stuart Mill. The steady state economy is often discussed in the context of economic growth and the impacts of economic growth on ecological integrity, environmental protection, and economic sustainability. Therefore, use of the phrase “steady state economy” requires a clear definition of economic growth.

Economic growth is an increase in the production and consumption of goods and services. For distinct economic or political units, economic growth is generally indicated by increasing gross domestic product (GDP). Economic growth entails increasing population times per capita consumption, higher throughput of materials and energy, and a growing ecological footprint. Economic growth is distinguished from “economic development,” which refers to qualitative change independent of quantitative growth. For example, economic development may refer to the attainment of a more equitable distribution of wealth, or a sectoral readjustment reflecting the evolution of consumer preference or newer technology.

The size of an economy may undergo one of two trends: growth or recession. Otherwise it is stable, in which case it is a “steady state economy.” As with many phrases, however, different connotations may apply in different contexts. In neoclassical economics, the hyphenated phrase “steady-state economy” is used to refer to an economy with steady ratios of capital:labor. Therefore, in neoclassical economics, a steady-state economy may be growing, receding, or stable, in which case it constitutes the steady state economy of ecological economics. Sometimes, however, the hyphenated “steady-state economy” is also used in the ecologically economic sense of a non-growing, non-receding economy. (In some cases this reflects the editorial style and tradition of a particular journal.) This linguistic inconsistency is not a major communications problem in broad circles because the neoclassical “steady-state economy” is a relatively abstruse concept used primarily within the jargon of neoclassical economics, whereas the ecological “steady state economy” is a technically simpler concept and has achieved a certain amount of vernacular status.

Yet regarding linguistics, the issue of hyphenation has some import. It is appropriate to use the unhyphenated phrase “steady state economy” to describe an economy of stable size because “state” (as in political state) is an adjective of “economy” (as in a state’s economy), and “steady” is an adjective of this state economy. In other words, “steady state economy” typically refers to a national economy of stable size, although it may also refer to an economy of a city, province, or other political unit. (It may also refer to a regional economy or the global economy, and in such cases political units are aggregated.) In neoclassical economics, “steady” is not an adjective of “state economy.” Rather, the conjoined “steady-state” is a heuristic tool to imply the stable ratio of capital:labor and, linguistically, is an adjective of “economy.”

Theoretically and temporarily, a steady state economy may have a growing population with declining per capita consumption, or vice versa, but neither of these scenarios are sustainable in the long run. Therefore, “steady state economy” connotes constant populations of people (and, therefore, “stocks” of labor) and constant stocks of capital. It also has a constant rate of throughput; i.e., energy and materials used to produce goods and services.

Within a given technological framework these constant stocks will yield constant flows of goods and services. Technological progress may yield a more efficient “digestion” of throughput, resulting in the production of more (or more highly valued) goods and services. However, as emphasized in biophysical economics (which may arguably be classified as a subset of ecological economics), there are limits to productive efficiency imposed by the laws of thermodynamics and therefore limits to the amount and value of goods and services that may be produced in a given ecosystem. In other words, there is a maximum size at which a steady state economy may exist. Conflicts with ecological integrity and environmental protection occur long before a steady state economy is maximized.

“Constancy” of population and capital stocks does not imply absolutely unchanging population and capital stocks at the finest level of measurement. Rather, “constant” implies mildly fluctuating in the short run but exhibiting a stable equilibrium in the long run. Long-run changes reflect evolutionary, geological, or astronomical processes that alter the carrying capacity of the Earth for the human economy. Dramatic examples include atmosphere-altering volcanoes and massive meteorite collisions.

Just as economic growth is the predominant macroeconomic policy goal identified or implied by neoclassical economics, the steady state economy is the predominant macroeconomic policy goal identified or implied by ecological economics. To the extent that ecological economics is a normative transdisciplinary endeavor rather than a purely analytical framework, its three main concerns are sustainability, equity, and efficiency, each of which may be served via public policy. Neither economic growth nor economic recession are sustainable; therefore, the steady state economy remains the only sustainable prospect and the appropriate policy goal for the sake of sustainability.

The steady state economy may be pursued in the policy arena with the same policy tools that have historically been used to facilitate economic growth. These include fiscal policy tools such as government spending and taxation, and monetary policy tools such as money supplies and interest rates. Certain institutional adjustments are also entailed. For example, some have posited that a fractional reserve banking system may not be reconciled with a steady state economy and that fee-service banking is the most feasible alternative. Other public policies pertaining to ecological integrity and environmental protection may also be conducive to a steady state economy. For example, some have posited that the Endangered Species Act of 1973 was an implicit prescription for a steady state economy balanced with an economy of nature characterized by numerous threatened and endangered yet stabilized species.

Want to help save the planet? Join 2019 Nobel Laureate Abhijit Banerjee and sign the CASSE position on economic growth. (You won’t leave this page by clicking here.)

The Short Version

The CASSE position sets the record straight on the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. Climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution are just three powerful examples. And how will the next generation find jobs when the planet can’t support our overgrown economy? The CASSE position calls for a desirable solution – a steady state economy with stabilized population and consumption – beginning in the wealthiest nations and not with extremist tactics. Join the likes of E. O. Wilson, Jane Goodall, and David Suzuki; fill in the information below to sign the position and support a healthy, sustainable economy.

The Full Version

The full version is 16 sentences and available in 29 languages.

Sign the Position

*ALL MARKED FIELDS ARE REQUIRED IN ORDER TO SUBMIT SIGNATURE FORM.
(We don’t share or misuse contact information—view our privacy policy.)

Individual Signature Petition
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History of the Steady State Concept

AdamSmithRightFor centuries, economists have considered a transition from a growing economy to a stable one, from classical economists like Adam Smith down to present-day ecological economists. Adam Smith is famous for the ideas in his book The Wealth of Nations. A central theme of the book is the desirable consequences of each person pursuing self interests in the marketplace. He theorized and observed that people trading in open markets leads to production of the right quantities of commodities, division of labor, increasing wages, and an upward spiral of economic growth. But Smith recognized a limit to economic growth. He predicted that in the long run, population growth would push wages down, natural resources would become increasingly scarce, and division of labor would approach the limits of its effectiveness. He even predicted 200 years as the longest period of growth, followed by population stability.

John_Stuart_MillJohn Stuart Mill, pioneer of economics and gifted philosopher, developed the idea of the steady state economy in the mid-19th century. He believed that after a period of growth, the economy would reach a stationary state, characterized by constant population and stocks of capital. His words eloquently describe the positive nature of such an economic system:

It is scarcely necessary to remark that a stationary condition of capital and population implies no stationary state of human improvement. There would be as much scope as ever for all kinds of mental culture, and moral and social progress; as much room for improving the Art of Living and much more likelihood of its being improved, when minds cease to be engrossed by the art of getting on.

KeynesHappyJohn Maynard Keynes, the most influential economist of the twentieth century, also considered the day when society could focus on ends (happiness and well-being, for example) rather than means (economic growth and individual pursuit of profit). He wrote:

…that avarice is a vice, that the exaction of usury is a misdemeanour, and the love of money is detestable… We shall once more value ends above means and prefer the good to the useful.

and

The day is not far off when the economic problem will take the back seat where it belongs, and the arena of the heart and the head will be occupied or reoccupied, by our real problems – the problems of life and of human relations, of creation and behavior and religion.

Georgescu-roegenNicholas Georgescu-Roegen recognized the connection between physical laws and economic activity and wrote about it in 1971 in The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. His insight was that the second law of thermodynamics, the entropy law, determines what is possible in the economy. Georgescu-Roegen explained that useful, low-entropy energy and materials are dissipated in transformations that occur in economic processes, and they return to the environment as high-entropy wastes. The economy, then, functions as a conduit for converting natural resources into goods, services, human satisfaction, and waste products. Increasing entropy in the economy sets the limit on the scale it can achieve and maintain.

SchumacherAround the same time that Georgescu-Roegen published The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, other economists, most notably E. F. Schumacher and Kenneth Boulding, were writing about the environmental effects of economic growth and suggesting alternative models to the neoclassical growth paradigm. Schumacher proposed “Buddhist Economics” in an essay of the same name, included in his book Small Is Beautiful. Schumacher’s economic model is grounded in sufficiency of consumption, opportunities for people to participate in useful and fulfilling work, and vibrant community life marked byBoulding peace and cooperative endeavors. Boulding used the spaceship as a metaphor for the planet in his prominent essay, The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth. He recognized the material and energy constraints of the economy and proposed a shift from the expansionist “cowboy economy” to the conservative “spaceman economy.” In the cowboy economy, success is gauged by the quantity and speed of production and consumption. In the spaceman economy, by contrast, “what we are primarily concerned with is stock maintenance, and any technological change which results in the maintenance of a given total stock with a lessened throughput (that is, less production and consumption) is clearly a gain.”

DalyGeorgescu-Roegen’s student, Herman Daly, built upon his mentor’s work and combined limits-to-growth arguments, theories of welfare economics, ecological principles, and the philosophy of sustainable development into a model he called steady state economics. Daly defined a steady state economy “an economy with constant stocks of people and artifacts, maintained at some desired, sufficient levels by low rates of maintenance ‘throughput’, that is, by the lowest feasible flows of matter and energy from the first stage of production to the last stage of consumption.

Daly later joined forces with Robert Costanza, AnnMari Jansson, Joan Martinez-Alier, and others to develop the field of ecological economics. In 1990, these prominent professors established the International Society of Ecological Economics. The three founding positions of the society and the field of ecological economics are:

  1. The human economy is embedded in nature, and economic processes are actually biological, physical, and chemical processes and transformations.
  2. Ecological economics is a meeting place for researchers committed to environmental issues.
  3. Ecological economics requires trans-disciplinary work to describe economic processes in relation to physical reality.

Ecological economics has become the field of study most closely linked with the concept of a steady state economy. Ecological economists have developed a robust body of theory and evidence on the biophysical limits of economic growth and the requirements of a sustainable economy.

Sustainable Scale and Degrowth

Sustainable scale is the key characteristic of a steady state economy. Scale is simply a measure of the size of one object relative to another. In this case, we are concerned with the size of the human economy relative to the ecosystems that contain it. Sustainability is achieved when the human economy fits within the capacity provided by Earth’s ecosystems. Economic activity degrades ecosystems, interfering with natural processes that are critical to various life support services. In the past, the amount of economic activity was small enough that the degree of interference with ecosystems was negligible. The unprecedented growth of economic activity, however, has significantly shifted the balance with potentially disastrous consequences. This is why getting the scale of the economy right (technically the point at which the marginal costs of growth equal the marginal benefits) is the highest priority for a steady state economy.

Finding the Goldilocks scale of the economy, the size that’s not too small and not too large, but just right, is no easy feat. In cases where the benefits of growth outweigh the costs (for example, where people are not consuming enough to meet their needs), growth or redistribution of resources may be required. In cases where the size of the economy has surpassed the carrying capacity of the ecosystems that contain it (a condition known as overshoot), degrowth may be required before establishing a steady state economy that can be maintained over the long term. Adjusting the scale of the economy through accurate measurement of benefits and costs, through trial and error, through regulation of markets, and through political will to achieve sustainability is the great challenge of our times.

Fair Distribution

Since continuous growth and sustainable scale are incompatible, growth cannot be relied upon to alleviate poverty, as has been done (ineffectively) in the past. If the pie isn’t getting any bigger, we need to cut and distribute the pieces in a fair way. In addition, poor people who have trouble meeting basic needs tend not to care about sustainability, and excessively rich people tend to consume unsustainable quantities of resources. Fair distribution of wealth, therefore, is a critical part of sustainability and the steady state economy.

Efficient Allocation

The conventional economic thought focuses almost exclusively on efficient allocation of scarce resources. The dominant thinking is that free and competitive markets, along with prices driven by supply and demand, result in efficient allocation of goods and services (in the absence of pesky, omnipresent externalities and market imperfections). Efficient allocation is also important in a steady state economy – ecological economists support many market strategies to accomplish efficient allocation of resources – but only after achieving sustainable scale and fair distribution. Efficient allocation, although a valid criterion for managing and using resources, means very little in an unsustainable or unjust economic system.

For a Romanian translation of this page (provided by Alexander Ovsov), please click here.

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  1. […] developed alternative discourse to economic growth, appearing as early as 1776 in the writings of Adam Smith.2 In the modern period, ecological economist Herman Daly has become the leading figure in the SSE […]

  2. […] Degrowth argues that the wealthy and heavily polluting countries of the global north – such as the UK – must undergo a phase of managed and socially equitable economic contraction. This is necessary to downscale rich economies to within safe ecological limits. […]

  3. […] state after a period of growth or after a period of downsizing or degrowth. To be sustainable, a steady state economy may not exceed ecological […]

  4. […] our economy from GDP and other measures of growth, and committing to the creation of a steady state economy  is a change we need to make. Such an economy would aim to stay within ecological limits and […]

  5. […] the economic issues involved in the transition that has to be made from the Growth Economy to the Steady State Economy [i]. (The G20 already has a number of Working Groups focussed on particular international issues […]

  6. […] associated primarily with the discipline of ecological economics, pioneered by Kenneth Boulding and Herman Daly in the USA and developed by other workers such as Tim Jackson in the UK and Peter Victor in Canada. […]

  7. […] most people realise. Its aim is to replace our current system with (what will be called) a steady state economy. Every single profitable aspect of nature is being priced, in preparation for this system – […]

  8. […] There is some room for hope. It is possible to have a decent civilization founded on the rates of return that renewable energy offers — and unlike the EROI of oil, those rates can be expected to increase with time and technological development. Solving the EROI squeeze means committing ourselves to building the infrastructure we need to capture current solar income and run our economy on renewable, non-carbon-based energy. Every unit of fossil energy we use to do anything else commits the United States and the planet as a whole to a lower, more straitened standard of living in the future. If we want to see an America of crumbling concrete and weed-filled vacant lots, an America too poor to repair its buildings and bridges, too poor to educate its young to the highest standards, an America that has become a fallen, impoverished power, we need only continue as we are: burning fossil fuel, ignoring climate change, and refusing to invest in the renewable energy infrastructure we need for a sane, rational, steady state economy. […]

  9. […] and her market freedoms.  But, as Christiane Kliemann writes in an article for the Guardian on degrowth, we do have to choose between the economy and our future.  The new kind of citizen would surely […]

  10. […] There is some room for hope. It is possible to have a decent civilization founded on the rates of return that renewable energy offers — and unlike the EROI of oil, those rates can be expected to increase with time and technological development. Solving the EROI squeeze means committing ourselves to building the infrastructure we need to capture current solar income and run our economy on renewable, non-carbon-based energy. Every unit of fossil energy we use to do anything else commits the United States and the planet as a whole to a lower, more straitened standard of living in the future. If we want to see an America of crumbling concrete and weed-filled vacant lots, an America too poor to repair its buildings and bridges, too poor to educate its young to the highest standards, an America that has become a fallen, impoverished power, we need only continue as we are: burning fossil fuel, ignoring climate change, and refusing to invest in the renewable energy infrastructure we need for a sane, rational, steady state economy. […]

  11. […] feedback for the lendee.  This seems to me inherently dicey, and to push us away from development (as sustainable, steady-state improvement in quality) toward more-ness, stuff, quantity–which most economics label “growth.” Yuck. The […]

  12. […] vision offers great promise for those thinking about how to make the transition to a steady-state economy that operates within ecological boundaries. However, in order for the NFP model to present a […]

  13. […] a vision of a “steady-state economy”, the economy does not exceed its ecological limits with stable levels of population, consumption […]

  14. […] a vision of a “steady-state economy”, the economy does not exceed its ecological limits with stable levels of population, consumption […]

  15. […] vision offers great promise for those thinking about how to make the transition to a steady-state economy that operates within ecological boundaries. However, in order for the NFP model to present a […]

  16. […] debate. For example, the economist Herman Daley has laid out the tenets for what he calls a “steady-state economy,” in which economic growth fluctuates in accordance with “ecological limits.” […]

  17. […] vision offers great promise for those thinking about how to make the transition to a steady-state economy that operates within ecological boundaries. However, in order for the NFP model to present a […]

  18. […] economy and therefore is an excellent source to begin a deeper study of the philosophy, historic roots, advantages, and how it can be […]

  19. […] convinced that our best hope of sustainable progress is to transition to a steady-state economy, where consumption and population are kept at steady, ecologically safe levels, and equitable human […]

  20. […] To be sustainable, a steady state economy may not exceed ecological limits. Retrieved from https://steadystate.org/discover/definition/ [12] Harcourt, Wendy. (1994). Feminist Perspectives on Sustainable Development. (pp. 14) [13] […]

  21. […] previous housing post, they remain the only Green party in the world with no explicit commitment to Steady State economics. Their lack of a clear position on a sustainable population, what it might be and how immigration […]

  22. […] Can they be built at the right price? Yes, but not without detrimentally affecting the values of existing properties, which is regarded as political suicide. Only the government has the resources to buy land, brownfield or rural fringe, by compulsory acquisition if necessary, and build large numbers of entry level “state” type houses on it. But as the Christchurch City rebuild shows, this government is mainly concerned about maintaining property values for existing owners, not providing for low income or younger buyers. On top of this Nimbyism is rife in Auckland, as opposition to the council’s high density plans showed. Not that the high density options would be any more affordable in this bubble market. The Greens in particular have a problem because they have a vision of high density and no sprawl, but no way of doing this in Auckland at an affordable level and they seem curiously ambivalent about immigration and population growth. They remain the only Green Party in the world not to be actively advocating a Steady State economy. […]

  23. […] [medium_ad_left]There is some room for hope. It is possible to have a decent civilization founded on the rates of return that renewable energy offers — and unlike the EROI of oil, those rates can be expected to increase with time and technological development. Solving the EROI squeeze means committing ourselves to building the infrastructure we need to capture current solar income and run our economy on renewable, non-carbon-based energy. Every unit of fossil energy we use to do anything else commits the United States and the planet as a whole to a lower, more straitened standard of living in the future. If we want to see an America of crumbling concrete and weed-filled vacant lots, an America too poor to repair its buildings and bridges, too poor to educate its young to the highest standards, an America that has become a fallen, impoverished power, we need only continue as we are: burning fossil fuel, ignoring climate change, and refusing to invest in the renewable energy infrastructure we need for a sane, rational, steady state economy. […]

  24. […] to help us pursue happiness, peace, joy, connection, and contribution, rather than widgets? Steady state economics means pursuing the good life without destroying the only planet that can support any […]

  25. […] steady state economy is an economy with stable or mildly fluctuating size and strives for stable or mildly fluctuating […]

  26. […] conflict between GDP and the health of the nation? Could Obama be the first to hearken the steady state economy — stabilized levels of production and consumption — as the sustainable alternative? Could […]

  27. […] suggest that the Occupy Movement could bring about an economic paradigm shift by adopting thesteady state economy as its macroeconomic policy goal. That means an economy with stabilized levels of production and […]

  28. […] heresy, either. A steady state economy was seen to be an inevitable result of a growing economy. Economists from the past recognized the eventual possibility of a steady state economy, including the most influential […]

  29. […] engaging stories which illustrate the good life in a steady-state economy help change our economic culture? I think so. A good story can attract new audiences, widening […]

  30. […] fide 21st-century heroism. It’s time to look for a future president capable of advancing the steady state economy as the sustainable alternative to […]

  31. […] become uneconomic, increasing social and environmental costs faster than benefits. The idea of a steady-state economy goes out the window, and customary growth-mania is […]

  32. […] past century’s foolish management of water would not have happened in a steady state economy. But today’s globalized, growth-obsessed economy allows, and even subsidizes, construction firms […]

  33. […] past century’s foolish management of water would not have happened in a steady state economy. But today’s globalized, growth-obsessed economy allows, and even subsidizes, construction firms […]

  34. […] of limits to growth, the damage caused by further growth, and the sustainable alternative of a steady state economy. But no, growth is truly at the heart of the president’s agenda, as described in more detail by […]

  35. […] of Economic Affairs (IEA) in London recently published a series of articles attacking the steady state concept.  The most vocal critic of the steady state is a fellow at the IEA named Kristian Niemietz.  He […]

  36. […] startled by the early realization that this book is nothing short of a 500-year-old vision of a steady state economy. In this article, I will review the book and show the many parallel aspects between the two […]

  37. […] public health, clean energy, and social and tax justice are laying the groundwork for a shift to a steady state — a dynamic and sustainable economy that pursues prosperity and full employment without GDP […]

  38. […] D.C. on Friday, April 15. The meeting took a bold, firm step toward implementing a key feature of steady-state economic thinking: it passed a resolution calling on the President, Congress, state governors and state legislators […]

  39. […] goals. Hopefully in the coming decades we’ll be pursuing the establishment of a sustainable, steady state economy rather than unsustainable and increasingly destructive economic […]

  40. Obama’s Top Priority Will Intensify Environmental and Social Crises | Green Conduct says:

    […] of limits to growth, the damage caused by further growth, and the sustainable alternative of a steady state economy. But no, growth is truly at the heart of the president’s agenda, as described in more detail by […]

  41. […] convinced that our best hope of sustainable progress is to transition to a steady-state economy, where consumption and population are kept at steady, ecologically safe levels, and equitable human […]

  42. […] 1970s, chronicled in reports from the Club of Rome and analysed in detail in the work of economist Herman Daly. More recently reports from the New Economics Foundation, and books by Tim Jackson and Peter Victor […]

  43. […] Das Zentrum für die Förderung der Null-Wachstums-Wirtschaft (CASSE): Nachhaltiger Maßstab ist das Hauptmerkmal einer stationären Wirtschaft. Um nachhaltig zu sein, kann eine stationäre Wirtschaft ökologische Grenzen nicht überschreiten. Gerechte Verteilung ist ein kritischer Teil der Nachhaltigkeit und der stationären Wirtschaft. Da kontinuierliches Wachstum und nachhaltiger Maßstab nicht vereinbar sind, kann das Wachstum nicht zur Linderung der Armut herangezogen werden. […]

  44. […] have less tonnage, less toxicity, because they have less growth and less of a profit driven ethos. Steady state economy is a term coined by Herman Daly, to refer to an economy of relatively stable size. It features a […]

  45. […] it than most people realise. Its aim is to replace our current system with (what will be called) a steady state economy. Every single profitable aspect of nature is being priced, in preparation for this system – […]

  46. […] I am a little bit more pessimistic about this one. Further is it quite possible that we have a steady state economy in 2100, in which there is no economic growth. If we assume that in 2100 most people are able to […]

  47. […] in the title, I find that rather anti-climactic. (I assume they are fans of some version of steady-state economics, but I’m only […]

  48. […] economic comment (No, not you Gordon!) – would value your thoughts on the concepts discussed here. Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:LikeBe the first to like […]

  49. […] mentions other forms of economy, too, such as the Solidarity Economy, the Blue Economy and the Steady State Economy. Whether the ideas introduced there will turn into action and reality will depend on how much […]

  50. […] hopes for.” IER and many others say that, eventually, we’ll end up with some kind of steady-state economy, either because we chose and crafted it or because it was forced on us by necessity. (See also: […]

  51. Can Occupy, occupy strategy? | The Future of Occupy says:

    […] mentions other forms of economy, too, such as the Solidarity Economy, the Blue Economy and the Steady State Economy. Whether the ideas introduced there will turn into action and reality will depend on how much […]

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